Find out how to make a pond in this article.
How do you make a pond?
Learn how to build a pond here. Small children may drown in only a few inches of water. Never leave them alone near the water. Make sure you have enough room to raise your own fish, frogs, and newts. If you wish to construct a pond on spongy or wet ground, first consider drainage.
Avoid windy regions since pond plants may be disturbed and water surface evaporation may increase. Remember that some tree species may harm ponds and the aquatic life that inhabits them. If you want an irregular pond, opt for an irregular design. The easiest method to excavate your pavered edge is to dig a trench around your pond first. If the ground is not level, the concrete pad and edge slabs must be leveled.
After installing the trench liner, you may pour a concrete pad on top of it. Dig out the pond's center to the desired depth using a spade and a pickaxe. The concrete pad should be 75mm deep plus the thickness of the edge slabs plus 15mm mortar between them. Drive in pegs a metre apart around the trench and level with a spirit or laser level. Installing a pond liner Apply a 25mm layer of moist sand on the surface of your excavated pond.
If the ground is rough or has sharp edges, cover the liner with old carpet. If you want to bury it and grass all the way to the pond's edge, cover the liner with dirt first. Drain your pond before edging the water feature. Cut the slabs 50mm over the lining with a club hammer and chisel. After emptying the pond, thoroughly clean the liner to avoid poisoning plants and fish.
If you are unsure about your ability to finish the installation, contact a professional electrician. Protect your pump's subterranean cables by putting a low voltage wire through a rockery next to the pond. Use a jubilee clip to connect the 25mm pipe to the UV clarifier and biological filter. To avoid algae growth in your pond, cover approximately a third of the surface with vegetation. If you think your plant may soon outgrow its container, re-pot it.
Clean gravel may be used to cover the stem of your plant to prevent dirt from escaping. Then gently place the plant in your pond. Water has been utilized in landscape gardening for hundreds of years, and a pond will bring a relaxing new dimension to your garden while also providing a home for fish, frogs, newts, and a variety of other species to flourish. Large ponds and water features may be found in a variety of sizes, ranging from large lakes to little self-contained pebble water fountains.
Creating a design for your pond.
Sturdy, pre-formed plastic ponds with a built-in planting shelf may be purchased in an array of forms and sizes from a variety of manufacturers. They're also not too difficult to put in; all you have to do is dig a hole big enough to fit the mold, check that the pond is exactly level, then back-fill the area around the mold. Flexible plastic liners, on the other hand, allow you to customize the form and size of your container to your specifications.
First and first, safety is paramount.
Never forget that even in only a few inches of water, tiny toddlers may drown. As a result, don't leave them alone for even a little time while they're near the pond. Install a safe fence and gate around the property till the children are older for your own piece of mind.
What depth do you think your pond should be?
Despite the fact that fish may live in as little as 400mm-600mm of water, the heat and light from the sun will enter a shallow pond more readily, resulting in increased algae development and a greater chance of disease. However, it is not necessary for your pond to be any deeper than one metre in depth.
Your pond will also need an edging, but avoid placing tiny pieces of stone directly on the edge, since they may fall in accidentally and do damage. Paving slabs are one of the most straightforward and efficient edging options, but you may also use big rounded pebbles. Instead, you may turf all the way up to the pond's edge; in this case, a narrow strip of waterside grasses would produce a more natural appearance than if you didn't do anything.
Where should your pond be located?
It is critical that you carefully consider where you will locate your pond in your garden in order for it to flourish over time. A variety of variables may have an impact on its health and long-term viability.
The sun and the wind.
Because most pond plants need sunlight to thrive, it's a good idea to locate your pond in an area where it will get enough of sunlight throughout the summer months. Also, avoid windy areas since pond plants may get dislodged in gales, and there will be greater evaporation from the surface of the water under these conditions.
Situation on the ground.
If you want to build a pond on spongy or soggy land, you should consider installing a drainage system first. A flexible liner may billow and rise to the top if there is a buildup of water under the surface of the liner. It is also capable of dislodging a pre-formed liner.
Should be at least 5m-6m away from your pond to ensure proper drainage. This will prevent it from being placed in the shadow and having its liner damaged by roots, as well as preventing the water from being blocked with fall leaves. It's important to remember that certain tree species may be detrimental to ponds and the aquatic life that lives in them. Water-loving trees such as willows, horse chestnuts, poplars and yews have strong, thirsty root systems, and the decaying leaves of willows contain compounds that are toxic to fish. All of the toxic plants, including laburnums, yews, and rhododendrons, may cluster on plum and cherry trees. Water lily aphids can also congregate in these trees.
For residential ponds may be used to power waterfalls and fountains, as well as to run filters and circulate water through them. Prior to figuring out how much water needs to flow through the pond, you must first calculate its volume by multiplying the average length (m) by the average depth (m) by the average width (m) (m). This technique will provide you with the volume in cubic metres that you are looking for. If you want to convert this to liters, all you have to do is increase the number by 1000. Aside from that, you'll need to know how much water can be handled by your pond's filtration system, the size of any waterfall you want to build, and the height from which the water will be pushed in order to reach the waterfall of your choice. Generally speaking, a pump with a capacity of 2750 litres per hour is needed to run a waterfall that is 150mm in diameter and 150mm in height, according to industry standards.
How to delineate the boundaries of your pond.
Create a basic drawing of your landscape, including the shape of your new pond and its surrounds, as well as any plants that will be there. If you want a more formal appearance, go for a symmetrical design instead. Alternatively, you might design an uneven, informal pond that seems natural and blends in with the surrounding environment.
How to mark out your pond.
Make a rough sketch of your garden and draw in the outline of your new pond and its surroundings, including any plants. Go for a symmetrical shape if you want a more formal effect. Or you could create an irregular, informal pond that looks natural and fits in with the landscape.
- Using a hosepipe or piece of rope, mark out the area where you want to build your pond. Experiment with various shapes and sizes until you find one you like.
- Make a clean line around the perimeter of your pond using a spade. Take away the hosepipe and draw another line outside the pond's perimeter to indicate where the edging will be placed on its outer edge to finish it off. The distance between your initial line and the slabs should be less than the width of a slab plus 50mm, so that the slabs overhang the pond's edge by 50mm in total. This not only helps to conceal the liner, but it also helps to protect it from direct sun exposure.
What is the best way to dig your pond?
In order to ensure that your pavered edge will be sturdy, dig a trench around your pond before you start digging it up and excavating it. You may then pour a concrete pad on top of the liner in the trench once it has been installed. This helps to keep the liner in place and provides a solid foundation on which to place the paving slabs. Even if the ground surface is not level, it is critical that the concrete pad and edge slabs be leveled. To make certain that this is the case, you'll need to cut levelling pegs that are 50mm x 50mm and about 300mm long, with one end polished to a point. Hammer them into the trench, spacing them no more than a metre apart, all the way around the perimeter of your pond's perimeter.
- Dig a trench between the two guidelines, if necessary, using a spade and a pickaxe. The depth of the concrete pad should be 75mm, plus the thickness of the edge slabs and a 15mm mortar connection between the two slabs. As you work, try to keep the trench as level as possible.
- To level the trench, drive a leveling peg into the center of the trench up to the completed water level. Because of the depth of the edging, this will be lower than ground level (with a 25mm-thick slab and 15mm mortar joint, the tops of the pegs should be 40mm below ground level). Make a mark on the first peg so that you may use it as a reference to level the rest of the pegs later on. Then, using a long spirit level or laser level, drive in pegs no more than a metre apart around the trench and level them with the spirit level or laser level.
- With the inner line serving as a guide, begin digging out the pond until it is at or near the level of the marginal planting shelf. The shelf should be about 230mm below the surface of the water and 250mm broad. It is preferable for stability that the edges of your pond do not slope vertically but rather gently inwards at an inclination of 20 degrees (or more in soft, crumbly ground).
- Using your spade, dig out the center portion of the pond to the depth you need, with the pond sides between the marginal shelf and the pond bottom sloped at 20 degrees to accommodate evaporation. Examine the ground to ensure that there are no stones poking out of it. In the center of your pond, hammer a stake into the ground, then use a spirit level and straightedge (or a laser level) to align everything with your initial peg. Double-check that all of the other pegs are level with the stake and make minor adjustments if necessary with the stake.
- In order to ensure that all of the pegs are at the proper level, prepare a reasonably stiff mortar by mixing three parts sand to one part cement and laying an even layer of it around all of the pegs. Check to see that the top of the mortar line is level with the pegs, and that the edges of the line are rounded off and the surface of the line is smooth. Then, using the center stake, verify the level all the way around the pond's rim to ensure that it is correct. Then, allow the mortar to cure for 24 hours before continuing.
- Using a plastering trowel, apply a 25mm layer of wet sand on the surface of your dug pond. The liner should be protected from the ground by using pond underlay or lengths of old carpet on top of the sand if the ground is extremely rocky or there are sharp edges.
How to properly install a pond liner
Allow for an overlap of at least 150mm along the perimeter of your pond so that you can attach the liner under the edging when calculating how much liner you will need. The overlap will have to be greater if you want to bury it and grass all the way up to the edge of the pond. To determine the length of the liner, measure the maximum length (including overlaps) and multiply the length by twice the maximum depth of the container. When calculating the width, take the maximum width (including overlaps) and multiply it by twice the maximum depth to get the width. Place the sheet over the dug area, allowing plenty of space on all sides. Gently stretch, smooth, and fold it into place over the excavated region. However, extreme caution should be used to avoid puncturing it on sharp stones. You should repair any holes you find using off-cuts of liner and an adhesive suggested by the manufacturer if you find any.
- Place the liner in the hole, securing it with stones or bricks around the perimeter to prevent it from sliding. Place the hose's other end in the pond's bottom and secure it with something substantial to prevent it from leaking (but not sharp). Then fill the pond with water, taking care to shift the stones or bricks as the water fills the pond in order to release the liner and enable it to fit through the hole.
- Smooth the liner over the mortar edge and into the trench - it should cover about half of the length of the trench. Then, using a pair of scissors or a sharp knife, cut away any extra material.
How to install pond edging on your property
Fill the trench around the perimeter of the pond with concrete, bringing it up to the level of the top of the mortar rim. Set the trench back in place. Using this method, you may secure the liner in place and provide a stable foundation on which to lay the edge slabs. Allow for about 24 hours of drying time for the concrete.
- Lay the slabs on top of the concrete in a continuous bed of mortar, with the slabs overhanging the liner by 50mm. Then, using four parts sharp sand to one part cement, mix the mortar until it is smooth. To allow for a 10mm mortar connection between the slabs, allow 10mm between the slabs. A club hammer and bolster chisel, or an angle grinder, will be required to cut each slab to match the curvature of the water feature's pond. While cutting your slabs, be sure to protect your hands with heavy-duty gloves, safety goggles, and a dust mask.
- Draining the pond will be necessary before you can complete the edging. Either use a length of hosepipe to siphon away the water, or use the pump - just connect a hosepipe to the output of the pump. To ensure that the pump is completely submerged in water at all times while it is running, you will need to scoop out the rest of the remaining water.
- Immediately after draining your pond, you should point the connection between the slabs and the liner. After you've finished, be sure to properly clean the liner since mortar is toxic to plants and fish.
Installing a pond pump and filters is a simple process.
When your pond is completely empty, installing a pump will be much simpler. You'll need to elevate the pump off the bottom of the tank in order to prevent debris from clogging the filter and to make it easier to access it for cleaning. The pump in this picture is a low-voltage type with a fountain head attached to it. An ultraviolet clarifier and a biological tank filter are attached to the system. It may be connected to the mains power in the same manner as low-voltage garden lighting is connected to the mains electricity.
- Installing and connecting a low-voltage pump is very simple, but keep in mind that water and electricity are a potentially deadly combination. If you have any doubts about your capacity to complete the installation on your own, you should consult with professional electrician.
- In order to preserve the liner, place a piece of pond underlay on top of it and support it with two bricks.
- Place a slab or a flat stone on top of the bricks and place the pump on top of it. Then, using a spirit level that has been set on the pond's edge, decide where you want your fountain head to be located. This should be placed about 3mm-5mm above the water's surface.
- Make certain that the underground wires of your pump are safeguarded. While passing through a rockery alongside the pond, we've ran the low voltage wire seen in the image via a plastic conduit that we've constructed.
- Using a jubilee clip, connect the 25mm pipe to the pump output on the other end. This pipe will go to the ultra-violet clarifier and biological filter, which will be followed by another pipe.
- Cut the end of the pipe attachment on the ultra-violet clarifier using a hacksaw so that it fits the size of your pipe and allows you to connect it to the clarifier. Keep in mind that an ultra-violet clarifier requires its own power source, and make sure you attach it according to the manufacturer's instructions.
- Place the tank filter at a height that is higher than the pond's surface (in this case, its outlet will feed a waterfall). Using a pipe, connect the output of the ultra-violet device to the tank's intake.
How to choose the right plants for your pond
Even though your pond is equipped with filters, it is still necessary to have plants in it in order to maintain the water healthy. In the growth season, try to cover approximately a third of the surface of your pond with foliage to prevent algae from developing. This will deny the algae of the light they need to thrive. Flowers with big leaves, such as lilies, are excellent for this. As an added bonus, deep-water aquatics and floating plants are recommended since they deplete the algae of essential minerals and nutrients. Because water plants do not need rich soil, aquatic compost or a thick garden soil may be used instead. However, avoid soils that are excessively sandy or that include farmyard manure if at all possible.
- In order to properly attach your plants in most ornamental ponds, you need use specific planting baskets with latticework sides. These help to retain soil while yet allowing water to pass through. Modern baskets also feature micro-mesh sides, which prevent soil from getting into the water and contaminating it. If the holes in your basket are very big, it's a good idea to line it with a piece of hessian before filling it with compost. If you have tall plants in the basket, such as bulrushes, place a block in the bottom of the basket before filling it with compost and planting them. This will help to keep them steady.
- If you believe that the pond plant you've selected will overflow its basket soon, re-pot it into a bigger container to accommodate its growth. Clean gravel may be used as a topping around the stem of your plant to prevent dirt from escaping from the surface of your pot. Afterwards, carefully drop the plant into your pond.
Points to consider while constructing a pond?
- Learn how to build a pond here.
- Small children may drown in only a few inches of water.
- Never leave them alone near the water.
- Make sure you have enough room to raise your own fish, frogs, and newts.
- If you wish to construct a pond on spongy or wet ground, first consider drainage.
- Remember that some tree species may harm ponds and the aquatic life that inhabits them.
- If you want an irregular pond, opt for an irregular design.
- The easiest method to excavate your pavered edge is to dig a trench around your pond first.
- If the ground is not level, the concrete pad and edge slabs must be leveled.
- After installing the trench liner, you may pour a concrete pad on top of it.
- Dig out the pond's center to the desired depth using a spade and a pickaxe.
- The concrete pad should be 75mm deep plus the thickness of the edge slabs plus 15mm mortar between them.
- Installing a pond liner Apply a 25mm layer of moist sand on the surface of your excavated pond.
- If you want to bury it and grass all the way to the pond's edge, cover the liner with dirt first.
- Drain your pond before edging the water feature.
- Cut the slabs 50mm over the lining with a club hammer and chisel.
- If you are unsure about your ability to finish the installation, contact a professional electrician.
- Protect your pump's subterranean cables by putting a low voltage wire through a rockery next to the pond.
- Use a jubilee clip to connect the 25mm pipe to the UV clarifier and biological filter.
- To avoid algae growth in your pond, cover approximately a third of the surface with vegetation.
- If you think your plant may soon outgrow its container, re-pot it.
- Clean gravel may be used to cover the stem of your plant to prevent dirt from escaping.
- Then gently place the plant in your pond.